Feedback and Feedforward Control in Speech Production in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia

Maas, Edwin and Mailend, Marja-Liisa and Guenther, Frank (2013) Feedback and Feedforward Control in Speech Production in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia. [Clinical Aphasiology Paper]

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Abstract

Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered to be a speech motor planning impairment (e.g., McNeil et al., 2009), but the nature of this impairment remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to test two hypotheses about the nature of AOS, framed in the DIVA model (Guenther et al., 2006). The DIVA model assumes that speech targets are regions in auditory space, and combines two control mechanisms to reach those targets: feedback control and feedforward control. The feedback mechanism generates corrective motor commands when the actual speech sound deviates from the intended speech sound. The feedforward mechanism generates predictive motor commands based on past experiences with the speech target. In the context of the DIVA model, we developed two hypotheses about possible underlying deficits in AOS. The Feedforward Control Impairment (FF) hypothesis states that feedforward control is impaired in AOS, with consequently a greater reliance on feedback control (Jacks, 2008). The Feedback Control Impairment (FB) hypothesis states that feedback control is impaired in AOS; concurrent feedback may be disruptive (cf. Ballard & Robin, 2007). We tested these hypotheses by measuring acoustic vowel contrast in two conditions: normal listening and auditory feedback masking. Under masking conditions, unimpaired speakers maintain segmental contrast (suggesting adequate feedforward commands to support speech without auditory feedback) even though contrast is somewhat reduced (suggesting on-line use of auditory feedback) (Perkell et al., 2007). The FF hypothesis predicts a greater reduction of segmental contrast with feedback masking in speakers with AOS than in controls, because effective removal of the auditory feedback control strategy will reveal the impaired feedforward commands. The FB hypothesis, in contrast, predicts increased segmental contrast with feedback masking, because removal of auditory feedback will allow the intact feedforward commands to produce adequate contrasts. One previous study that used feedback masking in AOS examined vowel duration and found longer vowels with masking in AOS and controls (Rogers et al., 1996); the present study also examined vowel duration.

Item Type: Clinical Aphasiology Paper
Depositing User: OSCP Staff 1
Date Deposited: 29 Aug 2013
Last Modified: 03 Jun 2016 12:54
Conference: Clinical Aphasiology Conference > Clinical Aphasiology Conference (2013 : 43rd : Tucson, AZ : May 28-June 2, 2013)
URI: http://eprints-prod-05.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/2469

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